There are four primary impact points when it comes to industrialization — air, water, soil and habitat.
The biggest problem is air pollution, caused by the smoke and emissions generated by burning fossil fuels. The United State’s EPA regulates more than 80 different toxins that can be found in industrial pollution, from asbestos and dioxin to lead and chromium. In spite of these regulations, industries are among the worst generators of air pollution in the world. Water pollution is also a problem in these areas, specifically in regions where factories are built next to natural water sources. These toxins can come in a variety of forms — solid, liquid or gaseous — and they can all end up contaminating the local water supplies. Even landfills and other waste disposal areas can leach toxins into the local water supply, leading to water pollution as in the case of River Nile.The Carbon CycleSoil contamination is another problem that goes hand in hand with industrialization. Lead is the most common form of soil contamination, but other heavy metals and toxic chemicals can also leach into the soil and, in turn, contaminate any crops that grow there.
Finally, industrialization has led to dramatic habitat destruction. Forests are cut down for their lumber, and ecosystems are destroyed to create roads, strip mines and gravel pits. Destroying these habitats upsets local ecosystems and leads to plant and animal extinction if the species are unable to relocate or adapt to their new surroundings.